Tiger Tuger

Tiger Tuger Frankfurter Verlagsanstalt

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Tiger Tuger

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Tiger Tuger Video

Eye Of The Tiger 2 Hour Loop

Major reasons for population decline are habitat destruction , habitat fragmentation and poaching. Tigers are also victims of human—wildlife conflict in particular in range countries with a high human population density.

The tiger is among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags , coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams.

In , Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of the species, several tiger specimens were described and proposed as subspecies.

Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and colouration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations.

Morphologically , tigers from different regions vary little, and gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene.

Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two tiger subspecies as valid, namely P. Results of craniological analysis of tiger skulls from Southeast Asian range countries indicate that Sumatran tiger skulls differ from Indochinese and Javan tiger skulls, whereas Bali tiger skulls are similar in size to Javan tiger skulls.

The authors proposed to classify Sumatran and Javan tiger as distinct species, P. In , morphological, ecological, and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach.

Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely P.

The authors also noted that this reclassification will affect tiger conservation management. The nominate subspecies P.

One conservation specialist welcomed this proposal as it would make captive breeding programmes and future rewilding of zoo-born tigers easier.

One geneticist was sceptical of this study and maintained that the currently recognised nine subspecies can be distinguished genetically.

A study published in was based on 32 tiger specimens using the whole-genome sequencing approach for analysis. Results support six monophyletic tiger clades corresponding with the living subspecies and indicate that the most recent common ancestor lived about , years ago.

The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera species lion , leopard and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.

The tiger—snow leopard lineage dispersed in Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Panthera zdanskyi is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger.

It lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, its fossil remains were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China.

It was smaller and more " primitive ", but functionally and ecologically similar to the modern tiger. It is disputed as to whether it had the striping pattern.

Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage. Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids , which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene.

Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1. Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period , about , years ago.

In the Philippine island of Palawan , two articulated phalanx bones were found amidst an assemblage of other animal bones and stone tools in Ille Cave near the village of New Ibajay.

They were smaller than mainland tiger fossils, possibly due to insular dwarfism. Otherwise, it would appear that early humans had accumulated the bones, [39] so it may be that the tiger parts were imported from elsewhere, or that the tiger colonised Palawan from Borneo before the Holocene, considering the proximity of the two islands.

Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,—, years ago. The resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range at the Last Glacial Maximum , indicating gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia.

The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were possibly separated during interglacial periods.

The tiger's full genome sequence was published in It was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny.

Captive tigers were bred with lions to create hybrids called liger and tigon. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species.

Breeding hybrids is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation. The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger.

The tiger has a muscular body with powerful forelimbs, a large head and a tail that is about half the length of its body.

Its pelage is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white ventral areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual.

This is not due to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and hair follicles embedded in the skin, similar to human beards colloquially five o'clock shadow , and is in common with other big cats.

The pupils are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears have a prominent white spot on the back, surrounded by black.

The tiger's skull is similar to a lion 's skull, with the frontal region usually less depressed or flattened, and a slightly longer postorbital region.

The lion skull shows broader nasal openings. Due to the variation in skull sizes of the two species, the structure of the lower jaw is a reliable indicator for their identification.

There is a notable sexual dimorphism between male and female tigers, with the latter being consistently smaller. The size difference between them is proportionally greater in the large tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.

Males also have wider forepaw pads, enabling sex to be identified from tracks. In either sex, the tail represents about 0.

The Bengal and Siberian tigers are amongst the tallest cats in shoulder height. There are three colour variants — white, golden and stripeless snow white — that now rarely occur in the wild due to the reduction of wild tiger populations, but continue in captive populations.

The white tiger has white fur and sepia brown stripes. The golden tiger has a pale golden pelage with a blond tone and reddish-brown stripes.

The snow white tiger is a morph with extremely faint stripes and a pale reddish-brown ringed tail. They have thick stripes close together so that the background colour is barely visible between stripes.

The white tiger lacks pheomelanin which creates the orange colour , and has dark sepia-brown stripes and blue eyes. This altered pigmentation is caused by a mutant gene that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which is determined by a white locus.

It is not an albino , as the black pigments are scarcely affected. Both parents need to have the allele for whiteness to have white cubs. The local maharaja started breeding tigers in the early s and kept a white male tiger together with its normal-coloured daughter; they had white cubs.

Inbreeding depression is the main reason for many health problems of captive white tigers, including strabismus , stillbirth , deformities and premature death.

The Tiger Species Survival Plan has condemned the breeding of white tigers, alleging they are of mixed ancestry and of unknown lineage.

The genes responsible for white colouration are represented by 0. The disproportionate growth in numbers of white tigers points to inbreeding among homozygous recessive individuals.

This would lead to inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability. In China and Myanmar, breeding populations appear to rely on immigration from neighbouring countries while its status in the Korean Peninsula is unknown.

The tiger is essentially associated with forest habitats. In the Caucasus, it inhabited hilly and lowland forests.

When not subject to human disturbance, the tiger is mainly diurnal. Four females dispersed between 0 and Adult tigers lead largely solitary lives. They establish and maintain territories but have much wider home ranges within which they roam.

Resident adults of either sex generally confine their movements to their home ranges, within which they satisfy their needs and those of their growing cubs.

Individuals sharing the same area are aware of each other's movements and activities. Young female tigers establish their first territories close to their mother's.

The overlap between the female and her mother's territory reduces with time. Males, however, migrate further than their female counterparts and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area.

A young male acquires territory either by seeking out an area devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male's territory until he is older and strong enough to challenge the resident male.

To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying urine [89] [90] and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat and marking trees or the ground with their claws.

Females also use these "scrapes", as well as urine and scat markings. Scent markings of this type allow an individual to pick up information on another's identity, sex and reproductive status.

Females in oestrus will signal their availability by scent marking more frequently and increasing their vocalisations.

Although for the most part avoiding each other, tigers are not always territorial and relationships between individuals can be complex.

An adult of either sex will sometimes share its kill with others, even those who may not be related to them.

George Schaller observed a male share a kill with two females and four cubs. Unlike male lions, male tigers allow females and cubs to feed on the kill before the male is finished with it; all involved generally seem to behave amicably, in contrast to the competitive behaviour shown by a lion pride.

They found her at the kill just after dawn with her three month-old cubs, and they watched uninterrupted for the next ten hours. During this period the family was joined by two adult females and one adult male, all offspring from Padmini's previous litters, and by two unrelated tigers, one female the other unidentified.

By three o'clock there were no fewer than nine tigers round the kill. Occasionally, male tigers participate in raising cubs, usually their own, but this is extremely rare and not always well understood.

The photos show a male Amur tiger pass by, followed by a female and three cubs within the span of about two minutes. The cubs remained under his care, he supplied them with food, protected them from his rival and sister, and apparently also trained them.

Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territories than females are of other females. Territory disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation rather than outright aggression.

Several such incidents have been observed in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back and showing its belly in a submissive posture.

Facial expressions include the "defense threat", where an individual bares its teeth, flattens its ears and its pupils enlarge.

Both males and females show a flehmen response , a characteristic grimace, when sniffing urine markings, but flehmen is more often associated with males detecting the markings made by tigresses in oestrus.

Like other Panthera , tigers roar , particularly in aggressive situations, during the mating season or when making a kill.

There are two different roars: the "true" roar is made using the hyoid apparatus and forced through an open mouth as it progressively closes, and the shorter, harsher "coughing" roar is made with the mouth open and teeth exposed.

When tense, tigers will moan, a sound similar to a roar but more subdued and made when the mouth is partially or completely closed. Range-wide, sambar deer , Manchurian wapiti , barasingha and wild boar are significantly preferred.

Tigers are capable of taking down larger prey like adult gaur [96] but will also opportunistically eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys , peafowl and other ground-based birds , hares , porcupines , and fish.

Although almost exclusively carnivorous, tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fibre such as fruit of the slow match tree.

Tigers are thought to be mainly nocturnal predators, [73] but in areas where humans are absent, remote-controlled, hidden camera traps recorded them hunting in daylight.

Successful hunts usually require the tiger to almost simultaneously leap onto its quarry, knock it over, and grab the throat or nape with its teeth.

If the prey catches wind of the tiger's presence before this, the tiger usually abandons the hunt rather than chase prey or battle it head-on.

One in 2 to 20 hunts, including stalking near potential prey, ends in a successful kill. When hunting larger animals, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their powerful forelimbs to hold onto the prey, often simultaneously wrestling it to the ground.

The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its target dies of strangulation. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large on its own.

With smaller prey, such as monkeys and hares, the tiger bites the nape , often breaking the spinal cord , piercing the windpipe , or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery.

After killing their prey, tigers sometimes drag it to conceal it in vegetative cover, usually pulling it by grasping with their mouths at the site of the killing bite.

This, too, can require great physical strength. When 13 men simultaneously tried to drag the same carcass later, they were unable to move it.

Tigers usually prefer to eat prey they have caught themselves, but may eat carrion in times of scarcity and may even pirate prey from other large carnivores.

Although predators typically avoid one another, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor is encountered, displays of aggression are common.

If these are not sufficient, the conflicts may turn violent; tigers may kill competitors as leopards , dholes , striped hyenas , wolves , bears , pythons , and crocodiles on occasion.

Tigers may also prey on these competitors. The considerably smaller leopard avoids competition from tigers by hunting at different times of the day and hunting different prey.

The average prey weight in the two respective big cats in India was The tiger mates all year round, but most cubs are born between March and June, with a second peak in September.

Gestation ranges from 93 to days, with an average of to days. A female is only receptive for three to six days. The father generally takes no part in rearing.

They open their eyes when they are six to 14 days old. They start to eat meat at the age of eight weeks. At around this time, females usually shift them to a new den.

Females lactate for five to six months. A dominant cub emerges in most litters, usually a male. The dominant cub is more active than its siblings and takes the lead in their play, eventually leaving its mother and becoming independent earlier.

Few other predators attack tiger cubs due to the diligence and ferocity of the mother. Apart from humans and other tigers, common causes of cub mortality are starvation, freezing, and accidents.

In the s, a new approach to tiger conservation was developed: Tiger Conservation Units TCUs , which are blocks of habitat that have the potential to host tiger populations in 15 habitat types within five bioregions.

Altogether TCUs were identified and prioritized based on size and integrity of habitat, poaching pressure and population status.

In , an estimate of a global wild tiger population of approximately 3, individuals was presented during the Third Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation.

Major threats to the tiger include habitat destruction , habitat fragmentation and poaching for fur and body parts, which have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild.

India is home to the world's largest population of wild tigers. Modi said "India is one of the safest habitats for tigers as it has achieved the target of doubling the tiger population from in to in ".

The project was credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from some 1, in to over 3, in the s, but a census showed that numbers had dropped back to about 1, tigers because of poaching.

In the s, the Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals remaining in the wild in Russia.

As a result, anti-poaching controls were put in place by the Soviet Union and a network of protected zones zapovedniks were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred.

Poaching again became a problem in the s, when the economy of Russia collapsed. Tigers have less impact on ungulate populations than do wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.

Though tiger hunting was prohibited in , the population continued to decline and is considered extinct in southern China since By it had banned the trade in tiger parts, and this diminished the use of tiger bones in traditional Chinese medicine.

The pelts were used in clothing, tiger-skin chuba being worn as fashion. In the 14th Dalai Lama was persuaded to take up the issue.

Since then there has been a change of attitude, with some Tibetans publicly burning their chubas. In , the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra.

The Sumatran Tiger Project STP was initiated in June in and around the Way Kambas National Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations.

Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. Tiger population have been estimated using plaster casts of their pugmarks , although this method was criticized as being inaccurate.

The tiger has been one of the big five game animals of Asia. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early 19th and 20th centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India.

A single maharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers in their hunting career. Historically, tigers have been hunted at a large scale so their famous striped skins could be collected.

The trade in tiger skins peaked in the s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. Tiger parts are commonly used as amulets in South and Southeast Asia.

In the Philippines, the fossils in Palawan were found besides stone tools. This, besides the evidence for cuts on the bones, and the use of fire, suggests that early humans had accumulated the bones, [39] and the condition of the tiger subfossils, dated to approximately 12, to 9, years ago, differed from other fossils in the assemblage, dated to the Upper Paleolithic.

The tiger subfossils showed longitudinal fracture of the cortical bone due to weathering, which suggests that they had post-mortem been exposed to light and air.

Tiger canines were found in Ambangan sites dating to the 10th to 12th centuries in Butuan , Mindanao. Many people in China and other parts of Asia have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs.

The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offences in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death.

However, the trading of tiger parts in Asia has become a major black market industry and governmental and conservation attempts to stop it have been ineffective to date.

It is estimated that between 5, and 10, captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today. Wild tigers that have had no prior contact with humans actively avoid interactions with humans.

However, tigers cause more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal. Attacks can be provoked accidentally, as when a human surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young, [] or as in a case in rural India when a postman startled a tiger, used to seeing him on foot, by riding a bicycle.

Such attacks are most common in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced their wild prey.

Most man-eating tigers are old, missing teeth, and unable to capture their preferred prey. She was responsible for an estimated human deaths, the most attacks known to be perpetrated by a single wild animal, by the time she was shot in by Jim Corbett.

Man-eaters have been a particular problem in recent decades in India and Bangladesh, especially in Kumaon , Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal , where some healthy tigers have hunted humans.

Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to climate change , tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans.

In the 10 years prior to that period, about attacks per year in the Sundarbans, with a high of around in some years of the s.

This decreased the number of attacks only temporarily. All other means to prevent attacks, such as providing more prey or using electrified human dummies, did not work as well.

In Ancient Roman times, tigers were kept in menageries and amphitheatres to be exhibited, trained and paraded, and were often provoked to fight humans and exotic beasts.

In , over 4, captive tigers lived in China, of which 3, were held by about 20 larger facilities, with the rest held by some smaller facilities.

Tigers and their superlative qualities have been a source of fascination for mankind since ancient times, and they are routinely visible as important cultural and media motifs.

They are also considered one of the charismatic megafauna , and are used as the face of conservation campaigns worldwide.

In Chinese myth and culture , the tiger is one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. In Chinese art , the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon — the two representing matter and spirit respectively.

The Southern Chinese martial art Hung Ga is based on the movements of the tiger and the crane. In Imperial China , a tiger was the personification of war and often represented the highest army general or present day defense secretary , [] while the emperor and empress were represented by a dragon and phoenix , respectively.

The tiger's tail appears in stories from countries including China and Korea, it being generally inadvisable to grasp a tiger by the tail. For the people who live in and around the forests of Korea, the tiger considered the symbol of the Mountain Spirit or King of mountain animals.

In Buddhism , the tiger is one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger, with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.

The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger as "Hu Lin," the king. In southern India the god Ayyappan was associated with a tiger.

The weretiger replaces the werewolf in shapeshifting folklore in Asia; [] in India they were evil sorcerers, while in Indonesia and Malaysia they were somewhat more benign.

In William Blake 's poem in his Songs of Experience , titled " The Tyger ", the tiger is a menacing and fearful animal. The story was adapted in Ang Lee 's feature film of the same name.

The book has sold over four million copies, [] and has been the basis of both fictional and documentary films. Milne 's Winnie-the-Pooh and Hobbes of the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes , both of whom are represented as simply stuffed animals come to life.

Tigers are also mascots for various sports teams around the world. Tony the Tiger is a famous mascot for Kellogg's breakfast cereal Frosted Flakes , known for its catchphrase "They're Gr-r-reat!

The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger was the emblem of the Chola Dynasty and was depicted on coins, seals and banners.

Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.

The tyger , a depiction of tigers as they were understood by European artists, is among the creatures used in charges and supporters in European heraldry.

This creature has several notable differences from real tigers, including absent stripes, a leonine tufted tail, and a head terminating in large, pointed jaws.

A more realistic version of the tiger entered the heraldic armory through the British Empire 's expansion into Asia, and is referred to as the Bengal tiger to distinguish it from its older counterpart.

The Bengal tiger is not a very common creature in heraldry, but is present as a supporter in the arms of Bombay and emblazoned on the shield of the University of Madras.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Largest species of the cat family. For other uses, see Tiger disambiguation and Tigress disambiguation.

Conservation status. Linnaeus , [2]. Further information: Felid hybrid , Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon. For other uses, see Tiger Cub.

Main article: Tiger conservation. Main article: Tiger hunting. See also: Tiger penis. Main article: Tiger attack. See also: Tiger worship.

The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B , [notes 1] often shortened to Tiger B. The Tiger II was the successor to the Tiger I , combining the latter's thick armour with the armour sloping used on the Panther medium tank.

Development of a heavy tank design had been initiated in ; the initial design contract was awarded to Henschel. Another design contract followed in , and was given to Porsche.

The Henschel version used a conventional hull design with sloped armour resembling the layout of the Panther tank. It had a rear-mounted engine and used nine steel-tired, eighty-centimeter-diameter overlapping road wheels per side with internal springing, mounted on transverse torsion bars , in a similar manner to the original Henschel-designed Tiger I.

The Porsche hull designs included a rear-mounted turret and a mid-mounted engine. The suspension was the same as on the Elefant tank destroyer.

This had six road wheels per side mounted in paired bogies sprung with short longitudinal torsion bars that were integral to the wheel pair; this saved internal space and facilitated repairs.

One Porsche version had a gasoline-electric drive fundamentally identical to a Diesel-electric transmission , only using a gasoline-fueled engine as the prime mover , similar to a gasoline-electric hybrid but without a storage battery; two separate drivetrains in parallel, one per side of the tank, each consisting of a hybrid drive train; gasoline engine— electric generator —electric motor—drive sprocket.

The Porsche suspension components were later used on a few of the later Jagdtiger tank destroyers. Another proposal was to use hydraulic drives.

Porsche's unorthodox designs gathered little favour. Henschel won the design contract, and all Tiger IIs were produced by the firm.

The initial design is often misleadingly called the Tiger II P , after the "Porsche" turret due to the misbelief that it was designed by Porsche for their prototype ; in fact it was the initial Krupp design for both prototypes.

Fifty early turrets were mounted to Henschel's hull and used in action. In December the more common "production" turret, sometimes erroneously called the "Henschel" turret, was simplified with a significantly thicker flat face, no shot trap created by the curved face of the earlier turret , and less-steeply sloped sides, which prevented the need for a bulge for the commander's cupola, and added additional room for ammunition storage.

The turrets were designed to mount the 8. Combined with the Turmzielfernrohr 9d German "turret telescopic sight" monocular sight by Leitz, which all but a few early Tiger IIs used, it was a very accurate and deadly weapon.

Powered turret traverse was provided by the variable speed Boehringer-Sturm L4S hydraulic motor, which was driven from the main engine by a secondary drive shaft.

A high and a low speed setting was available to the gunner via a lever on his right. If power was lost, such as when the tank ran out of fuel, the turret could be slowly traversed by hand, assisted by the loader who had an additional wheel, which could manually rotate the turret at a rate of one-half a degree per each revolution of the hand crank i.

This was the Henschel L , a double radius design which proved susceptible to failure. Transverse torsion bar suspension supported the hull on nine axles per side.

Like the Tiger I, each tank was issued with two sets of tracks: a normal "battle track" and a narrower "transport" version used during rail movement.

The transport tracks reduced the overall width of the load and could be used to drive the tank short distances on firm ground.

The crew were expected to change to normal battle tracks as soon as the tank was unloaded. Ground pressure was 0. It had two versions, Sd.

These carried only 63 rounds of 8. The Sd. This equipment was located on the rear decking in a position originally used for deep-wading equipment.

The Tiger II was developed late in the war and built in relatively small numbers. Orders were placed for 1, Tiger IIs—slightly more than the 1, Tiger I tanks produced—but production was severely disrupted by Allied bombing raids.

It is estimated that this caused the loss in production of some Tiger IIs. Full production ran from mid to the end of the war.

The vehicle was the costliest German tank to produce at the time. The HL , an engine born from the developments initiated by attempting to convert the Maybach HL to fuel injection , would have increased the power from to about PS hp.

The Entwicklungskommission Panzer unanimously decided that HL be immediately included in the engine design and procurement program.

The AK was also explored as an alternative to the Maybach Olvar-B drive train, but Waffenamt research and development department Wa Prüf 6 found that it offered inferior driving characteristics and so the Maybach Olvar-B was retained.

Wa Prüf 6 was not supportive of this as the Heer had not accepted the cannon itself. Other suggested improvements included stabilised sights, a stabilised main gun, an automatic ammunition feed, a Carl Zeiss AG stereoscopic rangefinder , heated crew compartment, stowage for an additional 12 rounds, and an overpressure and air filtration system to protect against poison gas.

However, these also never got beyond the proposal stage or did not enter production before the war ended. A standard battalion Abteilung comprised 45 tanks: [30].

Units that used the Tiger II were as follows: [31]. Early Tiger IIs proved unreliable, owing principally to leaking seals and gaskets, and an overburdened drive train originally intended for a lighter vehicle.

The Schwere Heeres Panzer Abteilung s. The first five Tiger IIs delivered to the Panzer Lehr Division broke down before they could be used in combat, and were destroyed to prevent capture.

The introduction of modified seals, gaskets and drive train components, as well as improved driver training and sufficient maintenance improved the tank's mechanical reliability.

Notwithstanding its initial reliability problems, the Tiger II was remarkably agile for such a heavy vehicle. Contemporary German records and testing results indicate that its tactical mobility was as good as or better than most German or Allied tanks.

Two were lost in combat, while the company commander's tank became irrecoverably trapped after falling into a bomb crater created during Operation Goodwood.

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In addition, We will impose in writing appropriate data protection and information security requirements on such third party data processors.

From time to time, We may also need to disclose personal information to other parties, such as any person natural or legal or organisation to whom We may be required by applicable laws to disclose personal information, including, but not limited to, law enforcement authorities, financial institutions, and central and local government.

Personal information may also be disclosed in connection with a corporate restructuring, sale, or assignment of assets, merger, divestiture, or other changes of the financial status of Us or any of our affiliated entities.

Finally, personal information may also be disclosed if necessary to protect the legitimate interests of Us unless this would prejudice the rights and freedoms or interests of you , or in our judgment to comply with applicable law, legal or regulatory obligations or regulatory inquiries or requests.

We will retain your personal information only for as long as it is necessary for the purposes for which the data was collected or later processed.

As a general rule, We will store data on customer contracts and purchases for five 5 years from the end of the year, where the contract was entered into or the purchase completed.

If necessary in order to fulfil the purposes mentioned above, we will store your information for an extended period. We may also retain your personal information for a longer period if we are legally required to do so or if retention is necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.

Information on criminal offences will be deleted upon final judgement has been delivered. In some cases, the provision of at least some of your personal information is a requirement necessary to enter into a contract.

Therefore, if you refuse to share such personal data, we may not be able to provide the services you request.

We will implement security measures to protect your personal data against manipulation, loss, destruction, and against unauthorised access.

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